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January 28,
1613

PROB 10/325 (1)

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Creator: Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Date: ca. 1615
Repository: The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call number and opening: PROB 10/325
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Item Creator
Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Item Date
ca. 1615
Repository
The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call Number
PROB 10/325

PROB 10/325 (2)

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Creator: Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Date: ca. 1615
Repository: The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call number and opening: PROB 10/325
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Item Creator
Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Item Date
ca. 1615
Repository
The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call Number
PROB 10/325

PROB 10/325 (3)

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Creator: Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Date: ca. 1615
Repository: The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call number and opening: PROB 10/325
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Item Creator
Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Item Date
ca. 1615
Repository
The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call Number
PROB 10/325

PROB 10/325 (4)

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Images reproduced by permission of The National Archives, London, England.

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Images may be used only for purposes of research, private study or education.  Applications for any other use should be made to The National Archives Image Library, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 4DU, Tel: 020 8392 5225   Fax: 020 8392 5266.

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Creator: Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Date: ca. 1615
Repository: The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call number and opening: PROB 10/325
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Item Creator
Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Item Date
ca. 1615
Repository
The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call Number
PROB 10/325

PROB 10/325 (5)

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The National Archives give no warranty as to the accuracy, completeness or fitness for the purpose of the information provided.
Images may be used only for purposes of research, private study or education.  Applications for any other use should be made to The National Archives Image Library, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 4DU, Tel: 020 8392 5225   Fax: 020 8392 5266.

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Creator: Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Date: ca. 1615
Repository: The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call number and opening: PROB 10/325
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Item Creator
Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Item Date
ca. 1615
Repository
The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call Number
PROB 10/325

PROB 10/325 (6)

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Creator: Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Date: ca. 1615
Repository: The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call number and opening: PROB 10/325
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Item Creator
Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Item Date
ca. 1615
Repository
The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call Number
PROB 10/325

PROB 10/325 (7)

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Creator: Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Date: ca. 1615
Repository: The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call number and opening: PROB 10/325
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Item Creator
Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Item Date
ca. 1615
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The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call Number
PROB 10/325

PROB 10/325 (8)

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Creator: Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Date: ca. 1615
Repository: The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call number and opening: PROB 10/325
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Item Creator
Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Item Date
ca. 1615
Repository
The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call Number
PROB 10/325

PROB 10/325 (9)

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Images may be used only for purposes of research, private study or education.  Applications for any other use should be made to The National Archives Image Library, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 4DU, Tel: 020 8392 5225   Fax: 020 8392 5266.

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Creator: Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Date: ca. 1615
Repository: The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call number and opening: PROB 10/325
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Item Creator
Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Item Date
ca. 1615
Repository
The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call Number
PROB 10/325

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Images reproduced by permission of The National Archives, London, England.

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The National Archives give no warranty as to the accuracy, completeness or fitness for the purpose of the information provided.
Images may be used only for purposes of research, private study or education.  Applications for any other use should be made to The National Archives Image Library, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 4DU, Tel: 020 8392 5225   Fax: 020 8392 5266.

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Creator: Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Date: ca. 1615
Repository: The National Archives, Kew, UK
Call number and opening: PROB 10/325
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John Combe of Stratford-upon-Avon was a contemporary of William Shakespeare. Though Combe was from a far wealthier and more established family, by the second decade of the seventeenth century Shakespeare’s accumulated wealth placed the two men on an essentially equal footing. John Combe died just short of two years before Shakespeare. Each man was memorialized with a monument in Holy Trinity Church.

John Combe’s original will, shown here, is dated January 28, 1612 [i.e. 1613]. It was probated on November 10, 1615, more than a year after Combe's death on July 10, 1614. In his will, on membrane 7, Combe bequeaths “to Mr William Shackspere ffive Poundes.” This bequest was reciprocated, in a manner, as in his own will, dated March 25, 1616, Shakespeare bequeathed his sword to “Mr Thomas Combe,” John Combe’s nephew and heir.

Incidentally, Combe’s will alludes to a plot of land “called or known by the name of Parson's Close alias Shakespere's Close” in Bishops Hampton (also known as Hampton Lucie, also known as Hampton) in Warwickshire. No connection is known to the Shakespeare family of Stratford-upon-Avon; rather, this place name is part of a large body of evidence that “Shakespeare” was a common Warwickshire surname.

John Combe’s will concludes with the assertion that he has “vnto euerie sheete hereof written my name;” nevertheless, only the last sheet of the original will carries his signature.
 

Semi-diplomatic transcription

[Text adapted from Halliwell Phillips, Outlines (1887), ii, 234-40. This transcription is pending final vetting]
 

[Image 1: sheet 1]
Testamentum Johannis Combe

Vicesimo octauo die Januarij Anno Regni Domini nostri Jacobi nunc Regis
Anglie etc. Decimo et Scotie xlvjto Annoque Domini 1612

In the name of god amen. I John Combe of Oldstretford in the Countie
of Warr[wick] gent beinge both in perfect heath [sic] and memorie god be thancked doe
make ordeyne and declare my laste will and Testamente in manner and
forme followinge that is to say first I Comend my soule to god my maker
hopeinge and stedfastlie beleveinge that thorowe the onlie merittes of Jesus
Christe my alone Sauiour and Redeemer I shall after this liffe ended
be partaker of the life everlastinge and my bodye to be buried in the
parish Church of Stretford vpon Avon in the said Countie of Warr[wick]
nere to the place where my mother was buried and my will is that a
Conveniente Tombe of the value of Threescore Poundes shalbe by my
executors hereafter named oute of my goodes and Chattelles firste Raysed within
one yeare after my deceas be sett over me. Item I geue and bequeth to my
Cossyn Sir Henrie Clare knight Two hundred Poundes of lawfull
English money to be paid unto him within Six monethes after my
deceas and yf he dye before paymente thereof then I will and bequeth
the said Two hundred Poundes to ffrauncis Clare his daughter to be
paid to her within the said Six monthes Item I geue and bequeth
to my brother John Combe all that my messuage or Tenemente with thappurtenaunces
wherein William Cawderie alias Cooke nowe dwelleth scituate lieing and
beinge in Warr[wick] in the said countie of War[wick] nere and adioyninge to the
Gable there to haue and to hold the same vnto the said John Combe my
brother for and dureinge the Terme of his liffe and after his decesse the
Reuercion and Remainder thereof to be to the vse and behoofe of the heires
males of the bodye of the said John Combe lawfullie begotten ^and to be begotten and for
want of such heires to the heires males of the bodie of my nephewe
William Combe Esquier and the heires males of his bodye lawfully
begotten and to be begotten and for default of such heires to the

[Image 2: sheet 2]
vse and behooffe of my nephew Thomas Combe gent and of the heires ^males of his
bodie lawfullie begotten and to be begotten and for default of such heires to my
my [sic] brother George Combe and the heires males of his bodie lawfully begotten
and to be begotten and for default of such heires to the Right heires of
me the said John Combe for ever Item I geue and bequeth to the
Children of my brother John Combe the summe of Three hundred
Poundes of lawfull English money to be paid vnto them within Six
monthes after their fathers decease and to be equallie deuided amongste
them I meane those of his Children as shalbe liveinge at his decease and
in the meane tyme my will is and soe I bequeth and devyse the said
Three hundred poundes shall within one yeare after my decease be Raysed
out of my goodes and Chattelles and be sett forth or otherwaies
ymployed to the beste vse it may bee and the vse and proffet Comeinge
thereof to be paid yearlie to my said brother John Combe duringe his liffe
to his owne vse and towardes the bringinge vpp of his Children Item I
geue will devyse and bequeth to the said William Combe one Closse or ground
with thappurtenaunces Called Pole Closse ^or ground Called Wallnuttre
Closse and other Closse or ground with thappurtenaunces latelie devided into
two groundes called Ingon Grove all of them scituate lieinge and beinge
within the parish of Bishoppes Hampton alias Hampton Lucye in the
said Countie of Warr[wick] to haue and to hold the same to the
said William Combe and the heires males of his bodye lawfully
begotte and to be begotten and for default of such heires the Reuercion
and Remainder thereof to be and Remayne to my said nephewe
Thomas Combe and the heires males of his bodye lawfullie
begotten and to be begotten and for default of such heires to my
brother George Combe for and dureinge his naturall liffe

[Image 3: sheet 3]
And After his decease to my nephewe John Combe sonne of the said George
and to the heires males of his bodie lawfullie begotten and to be begotten
and for default of such heires to the vse and behooffe of my brother John
Combe and the heires males of his bodie lawfulie begotten and to be
begotten and for default of such heires to the Right heires of me
the said John Combe forever ^Item I geue will bequeth and devyse
to my said nephewe Thomas Combe all those groundes or Ch Closses
of land medowe and pasture lieinge and beinge in Hampton aforesaid
with there and euerie of theire appurtenaunces Called or knowne by the
seuerall names of Syndrye medowe Rynell alias Rynehill and prieste
Crofte to haue and to hold the same to my said nephewe Thomas Combe
and to the heires males of his bodye lawfullie begotten and to be
begotten and for default of such heires the said laste mencioned
premises to be and Remaine to the vse and behooffe of the said William
Combe and the heires males of his body lawfullie begotten and to be
begotten and for default of such heires to my said brother George
for and dureinge his naturall liffe and after his decease to my
said nephewe John his sonne and the heires males of his bodye
lawfullie begotten and to be begotten and for default of such heires
to my brother John and the heires males of his bodie lawfullie
begotten and to be begotten and for defaulte of such heires to the
Right heires of me the said John for ever Item I geve and will
and bequeth and deuise vnto my said brother George Combe
all those Closses or groundes with thappurtenaunces Called or
knowne by the name of Parsons Closse alias Shackesperes Closse
lieinge and beinge in Hampton aforesaid to haue and to hold the
same to the said George Combe for and duringe the Terme

[Image 4: sheet 4]
of his naturall liffe and after his decease the said last mencioned premises with their
appurtenances and the Reuercion and Reuercions thereof to the be and Remaine to my said
nephewe John Combe and the heires males of his bodye lawfullie begotten and
to be begotten and for default of such heires to my nephewe William Combe
and the heires males of his body lawfullie begotten and to be begotten and for
default of such heires to my nephewe Thomas Combe and the
heires males of his bodie lawfullie begotten and to be begotten and for default
of such heires to my said brother John Combe and the heires males of
his bodye lawfullie begotten and to be begotten and for default of such
heires to the Right heires of me the said John Combe for ever, Item
I geue and bequeth vnto Thomas Raynoldes sonne of Thomas Raynoldes. of
Oldstretford aforesaid gent one hundred Poundes of lawfull English money
to my Cossen Margarett Raynoldes wife of the said Thomas Raynoldes thelder
one hundred Poundes of lawfull English money to the Children of Jane
ffeatherston daughter of the said Thomas Raynoldes thelder one hundred Poundes
of lawfull English money equallie to be deuided amongst them and to be
paid vnto the said Children at the decease of the said Jane and my will and
meaninge is and soe I devise and will that the said ^one hundred Poundes shall
within one yeare after my decease be sett fourth by my executors and overseers
to the best vse and Comodity that may be and the vse thereof Comeinge shalbe
paid yearlie to the said Jane duringe her liffe for her mainteynaunce Item
I geue and bequeth to Margarett Raynoldes daughter of the said Thomas
Twentie Poundes to euerie one of the Reste of my Cossyn Thomas Raynoldes
his Children Tene Poundes a Peece to be paid within one yeare after my
decease and my will is and soe I devyse that yf any of the Children of
the said Thomas Raynoldes happen to dye then his her and theire Legacie
soe dyeinge shalbe and Remayne amongst the Rest of the said his nowe

[Image 5: sheet 5]
Children as shalbe then levynge equallie to be deuided amonste them Item I geve
and bequeth to my brother George Combe my beste suite of apparrell and my second
gowne and yf he be not liveinge at my decease my will is that his sonne John
shall haue the said apparrell and gowne Item I geue and bequeth to my sister
Hyett and her children one hundred markes of lawfull English money to be
paid within Six monethes after my decease and to be equallie deuided amongste
them Item I geue and bequeth vnto my Neces Marye Combe and Joyce
Combe daughters of my Brother Thomas Combe deceassed one hundred
Poundes a Peece of lawfull English money to be paide within one yeare after
my decease And yf either of them dye before her legacie ^be Due to them my
will is and soe I devise that her legacye soe dyeinge shalbe paid and Remayne
to the Survivour of them and if both of them soe dye then my will ys and soe
I devise that both their legacyes shall Remayne and be paid vnto my brother
George his two daughters equallie to be devyded betwene them Item I geue
and bequeth to my said Brother George his two daughters one hundred markes
a Peece of lawfull English money to be paid vnto them within one yeare after my
decease and yf either of them dye before that tyme her legacye soe dyeinge
shall Remayne and be paid to the Survivour of them and yf the [sic for they] both dye
before there legacyes be due my will ys and soe I doe devise that both there
legacyes shall remaine and be paid vnto the said Marie and Joyce Combe
equallie to be deuided betwene them Item I doe geue will and devise vnto
my Cossyn Margarett Raynoldes wife of the said Thomas Raynoldes thelder all my
he ^my Right and Tytle I haue to those groundes Called Samon Tayle
lieing and beinge within the parish of Stretford vppon Avon in the said
County of Warr[wick] To haue and to hold the same for and duringe the
the [sic] Terme of her naturall liffe and after her decease the said laste
mencioned premises and the Reuercion thereof to be and Remayne to William

[Image 6: sheet 6]
Raynoldes her sonne and the heires males of her body lawfullie begotten and to be begotten
and for defaulte of such heires to Thomas Raynoldes her sonne and the heires males of his
body lawfullie begotten and to be begotten and for defaulte of such heires to Walter
Raynoldes her sonne and the heires males of his body lawfullie begotten and to be
begotten And for defaulte of such heires to the Right heires of the said Margarett
Raynoldes for ever, Item I geue Bequeth and Release vnto my said Cossyn Thomas
Raynoldes ^thelder all ^such Summes and Summes of money and debtes which he oweth vnto
me and thereof and of all Reckininges and Accomptes and demaundes whatsoeuer I
doe by this my will release acquite and discharge him the said Thomas Raynoldes
thelder his heires executors and Administrators for ever Item I geue and bequeth vnto my
my [sic] said Cossyn Margarett Raynoldes all my plate my beste gowne and all my houshold
stuffe except my apparrell Item I geue and bequeth vnto my seruant Richard Mason
yf he be my seruaunte at my decease ffiftie Poundes of lawfull English money
to Audrean Holder yf he be my servaunte at my decease Thirtie Poundes of
lawfull English money. To John ffetherston Tenne Poundes to Roberte Davys yf he
be my servaunte att my decease Twentie Poundes to Richard Burnett yf he be
my servaunt at my decease Twentie shillinges and to Panckeridge yf he be my
servante at my decease ffortie Shillinges and to my Cossyn Thomas Raynoldes
thelder his sonne servauntes such as shalbe his servauntes at my decease ffive shillinges
apeece all these legacyes to be paid within one yeare after my decease Item I geue
and bequeth to my vncle John Blunte yf he be levinge at my decease fortie shillinges
to buy him a Ringe to my Cossyn Anne Dyckyns ffive Poundes to buy her a Ringe to my
goddaughter Gardener Twentie Poundes and to her sister Tenne Poundes to be paid
within one yeare after my decease Item I geue will and bequeth one hundred Poundes
of lawfull English money to be vsed and ymployed for ever accordinge to my intente
and meaninge hereafter expressed in this my will that is to say and my will ys that my
executors and overseers heareafter herein named shall within one yeare after my decease vpon
good and reasoenable securitie lend the said hundred Poundes vnto ffyfteene Poore
or younge Tradesmen occupiers or handicroftes men dwellinge within the Borough of

[Image 7: sheet 7]
Stretford vppon Avon aforesaid (viz to euerie one of them Twentie Nobles a Peece for the Terme
of Three yeares euerie one of them payeinge yearelie dureinge the said Three yeares the Sume of
Three shillinges and fower Pence at the ffeastes of Saincte Michaell tharchangell and the
Annunciacion of blessed Marie the Virgyn by equall porcions and at thend of the said Three
yeares to ffyfteene others for three yeares euerie one payeinge yearelie iijs iiijd in manner
aforesaid soe from three yeares to three yeares for ever ever [sic] payinge as aforesaid accordinge
to my true meaninge which said yearelie seuerall sonnes [sic for sommes] of three shillinges and ffower Pence before
mencioned to be paid as aforesaid for the said one hundred Poundes shalbe and for ever
Remaine to the vse of the Almesfolkes of Stretford aforesaid and my will ys and soe I doe
desyer that my executors and overseers or the Survivour of them will take such order
eyther with the Bayliffe or Burgasses of the Borough of Stretford aforesaid for the
Tyme beinge or by some other waye or meane that the said hundred Poundes and the
Benefitt thereof Cominge may Contynue for ever accordinge to my meaneinge
before expressed Item I geue and bequeth to the poore of Stretford Twentie Poundes
to the Poore of Warr[wick] ffive Poundes and to the poore of Alcester ffive Poundes Item
I geue vnto William White xls which he oweth me by bond yf he be livyinge at my
decease and the same bond to be Cancelled to Mr. William Shackspere ffive Poundes
and to my londlord John Davys 40s Item I geue and bequeth vnto vnto ffrauncis Collens
thelder of the Borough of Warr[wick] Tenn Poundes of lawfull English money and to my
godsonne John Collens his sonne other Tenne Poundes of like lawfull English money to
be paid vnto them within one yeare after my decease and yf eyther of them die before
Receipte of his said legacye then my will ys and soe I devyse and bequeth that the
Surviuor of them shall haue his legacye that shall soe happen to dye and yf the said
ffrauncis and John Collens happen to dye before the tyme appoynted for the
paymente of their legacyes then my will is and so I devyse and bequeth bothe
there legacyes of Tenne Poundes a Peece to Susanna Collens wiffe of the said
ffrauncis and to theldeste sonnne of the said ffrauncis equallie betwixt them Item I
geue and bequeth vnto the said Susanna Collens Six Poundes Thirteene shillinges
ffour Pence of lawfull English money and to Mr. Henrie Walker Twentie

[Image 8: sheet 8]
Shillinges Item I geue and bequeth vnto my servauntes Richard Mason and Audrian Holder
yf they be my Servauntes at the tyme of my decease all my wearinge apparrell not
before geuen excepte that apparrell that was my vncle ^William Combes and yf they be not my
seruauntes then to such personns as my executors shall appoynte Item I geue and bequeth to my
Cossyn Thomas Raynoldes thelder and Margarett his wife my Teeme of Oxen which
I shall haue at my decease and yf I then shall haue noe Teeme, then If
geue and bequeth ffortie markes of lawfull English money and alsoe I geue vnto
them the said Thomas and Margerett my waynes Tumbrelles ploughes and other thinges
belonginge vnto a Teeme Item I geue and bequeth vnto Sir ffrauncis Smith knight
ffive Poundes to buy him a haucke and to the ladie Anne his wiffe ffortie Poundes
of lawfull English money to buy her a bason and Ewer and vnto Mrs. Palmer the
wiffe of John Palmer Esquier xls to buy her a Ringe Item I geue and bequeth to
euerie one of my godchildren before not named ffive shillinges a Peece Item I geue
will bequeth and devyse to my Cossyn Thomas Combe his heires and assignes for
ever all my medowe ground with thappurtenaunces in Shotterie meadowe to the vses
intentes and purposes heareafter herein mencioned that is to say that he the said
Thomas Combe his heires and assignes shall yearlie and euerie yeare for euer pay to
a learned preacher Twentie shillinges to make a Sermon Twyce a yeare at stretford
Church aforesaid and also shall and doe yearlie and euerie yeare for euer one weeke
before the ffeaste of the Natyuitie of our lord god geue and deliuer to such tenn
Poore People within the Borough of Stretford vppon Avon aforesaid as shalbe
yearlie appoynted and elected by the bayliffe and Cheeffe alderman for the
Tyme beinge of the said Borough and too of the Auntienttes Aldermen there
There tenn black gownes euerie one of them worth Thirteene shillinges and ffower
Pence apeece and yf my said nephewe Thomas Combe his heires or assignes shall
or doe not pay the said Twentie shillinges yearlie ^to a preacher and geue and deliuer
the said Gownes then my will ys and soe I will and deuise that yt

[Image 9: sheet 9]
shall be lawfull to and for the said Bayliffe and Burgasses of the Borough of stretford
aforesaid and their Successors for the tyme beinge from tyme to tyme and at all tymes
heareafter soe often as the said Twentie Shillinges shall not be yearlie paid to a preacher
or the said gownes or any of them deliuered and geuen as aforesaid accordinge to my
will and meaninge herein mencioned to enter into the said medowe ground and euerie
parte and parcell thereof and the yssues and profittes thereof to take and out of the
yssues and proffittes thereof to pay geue and satisfie the yearlie Some of Twentie
shillinges soe by behynd vnpaid and the Arrerages thereof yf anie be together with the
said gownes as shalbe behynde vndeliuered accordinge to this my will and after the said
medowe ground to be to the said Thomas Combe his heires and assignes Charged as
aforesaid Item I geue and bequeth to euerie one of my good and iuste detters for euerie
Twentie Pound that any man oweth me Twentie shilinges and soe after this Rate
for a greater or lesser debte to be deliuered backe vnto them by my executors when they
pay in there debtes all the Restes of my goodes Chatteles legacyes leases Credittes and Rightes
whatsoeuer after my debtes and legacies paid and my funeralles discharged accordi<nge>
to my degree and my will performed will which I will and Charge my executors to doe within
one yeare and an half after my decease vppon payne of fforfeiture of such legacyes of
aswell of landes as money or goodes I have or doe herein geue and deuise vnto them
I geue and bequeth vnto my ^said nephewe Thomas Combe and I doe make and ordeyne
the said Thomas Combe Sir Richard Verney knight and Bartholmewe Hales Esquier
executors of this my laste will and Testamente and I do geue and bequeth to the said Sir Richard
Varney and Bartholmewe Hales Twentie Poundes a Peece of lawfull English
money and alsoe I doe nominate and appoynte Sir Edward Blunte knight Sir
Henrie Rainsford knighte Sir ffrauncis Smith knighte and John Palmer of
Compton Esquier to be overseers of this my will vnto whom I geue ffive
Poundes a Peece or vnto euerie one of them a siluer salte worth ffive Poundes, Item I geue
to Mrs. Barnes ffortie shillinges to buy her a Ringe ^and to the ladie Rainsford fortie shillinges to buy her a ringe and my will is and soe I doe deuise that
yf any person whatsoeuer before named shall dislike of such legacyes as I haue giuen herein
deuised or bequethed vnto them and not hold them selves therewith Contented shall losse the
same and all the benefitt that the [sic for they] Cann any way Clayme by this my will and I doe

hereby revooke all fformer willes by me heretofore made and do declare and publish
this to be my last will and Testamente and haue vnto euerie sheete hereof written my name
(signed) John Combe

sheet 9 dorse [not pictured]
Probatum coram Magistro Williamo
Byrde legum doctore Commissario
&c. decimo die mensis Novembris  \
Anno domini 1615 Iuramento Thome
Combe vnius executorum &c. Cui &c. de bene &c. Iurat’ Reservat’ plate
&c. Richardo Verney militi et Bartholomeo
Hales Armigeri ex’bus’ &c.  m’
predict’ &c. petitionis.
    Blasij

For more on wills in Shakespeare's England, see Alan H. Nelson's essay

Written by Alan H. Nelson

Sources

B. Roland Lewis, The Shakespeare Documents: Facsimiles, Transliterations, Translations and Commentary, vol. 1 (Stanford University, California: Stanford University Press, 1940), 326, 544.

David Thomas, Shakespeare in the Public Records (London: H.M.S.O., 1985), 23.

 

Last updated March 19, 2018